Cheol Joon Baek
The hard costs
$50 million Cost of snow removal this year, which the city says is slightly higher than average.
$4 million Money spent on pothole repairs as of the end of March. That's to fill 116,900 craters - twice the usual number.
December 2013 ice storm
$106 million Cost to the city, about $50 million of that to emergency tree response and clean up.
$150-$400 per hour What private crews were paid for cleanup.
Almost $9 million Amount spent on salting and road maintenance during the storm.
$200 million In insured losses in Ontario and Eastern Canada.
July 2013 flooding
$65 million Cost to the city.
$850 million Estimated cost of insurance claims.
2005 Finch Avenue bridge washout
$47 million Cost to the city.
$400-$500 million Cost of insurance claims.
More than 4,200 Number of basements that were flooded.
The hidden costs of global warming are a matter of urgency. What it means for Toronto
Increased heat-related deaths and illnesses There were six deaths in the summer of 2005 and more than 200 calls to 911 for heat-related illness. Toronto Public Health estimates the number of heat-related deaths in Toronto will double by 2050, and that air-pollution-related deaths will increase by 20 per cent from the current 820 a year.
More airborne viruses and disease Warmer winters mean the breeding of more disease-carrying insects. See West Nile virus and Lyme disease. Others that health officials say may reach the big smoke: malaria, dengue fever, hantavirus, Eastern equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis.
Great Lakes CO2 bomb The doubling of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is expected to speed up evaporation to the point that water levels in the Great Lakes will drop by 1 metre by the midpoint of this century. Besides water quality issues from higher concentrations of lake contaminants, ships will have to lighten their loads to navigate shallower shipping channels in the port, thereby increasing the costs of commerce.
The other flood: refugees While Great Lakes water levels are dropping, elsewhere around the world they're rising, displacing millions of people. Some of the 150 million new refugees worldwide predicted by the International Panel on Climate Change will put added pressure on Toronto's health, education and social services.